Sperm transfer aged epigenome to offspring
Aging, Environment, & DiseaseDNA Methylation and HydroxymethylationImprinting and Inheritance

Advanced Paternal Age at Conception Increases Risk of Age-Related Diseases in Offspring

As a person ages, they become more prone to diseases, including cancer and neurodegeneration. Having children when you are older can also affect the health of your offspring, increasing the risk for neuropsychiatric disorders, among many others [1], [2]. Sperm contribute epigenetic information to the zygote [3] that can affect …

ncRNA is Synergistically Regulated by Various Epi-Modifications
Aging, Environment, & DiseaseDNA Methylation and HydroxymethylationHistone ModificationsRegulatory RNATools & Technology

Non-coding RNA Expression is Synergistically modulated by Various Types of Epigenetic Modifications

It is well known that most of the mammalian genome is transcribed, producing large amounts of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). The two main types of ncRNA are micro RNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). MiRNAs are a recently discovered and well-characterized class of ncRNAs that are frequently dysregulated in different …

Neuroblastoma cells: nuclei are stained in red, microfilaments are in green and in blue
Aging, Environment, & DiseaseDNA Methylation and HydroxymethylationRegulatory RNA

MicroRNA expression is regulated by DNA methylation: a complex cascade of gene regulation events

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs, roughly 22 nucleotides in size that are central and negative regulators of gene expression. They exert their functions through base-pairing with the 3’UTR of mRNAs   and block expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, depending on the perfect or imperfect match in sequences between miRNAs …

Gene Transcription
Regulatory RNA

A new role for miRNAs: Transcriptional Gene Activation by Nuclear Activating miRNA (namiRNAs)

MiRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that carry diverse epigenetic and post-transcriptional mechanisms. Primarily, they have been studied for their function as a negative gene expression regulator, leaving their roles in activating gene expression poorly understood. Xiao et al.reports that miRNAs in the nucleus mediate gene activation by interacting with enhancer elements …

Aging, Environment, & DiseaseRegulatory RNA

Genome-Wide DNA Methylome Analysis Reveals Epigenetically Dysregulated Non-coding RNAs in Human Breast Cancer

Yongsheng Li, Yunpeng Zhang, Shengli Li, Jianping Lu, Juan Chen, Yuan Wang, Yixue Li, Juan Xu, Xia Li The development of human cancer is mediated by both genetic and epigenetic alterations of the cell. Since the discovery of altered DNA methylation in human cancer, DNA methylation studies of cancer have …

Erasing Breast Cancer
Aging, Environment, & DiseaseDNA Methylation and HydroxymethylationRegulatory RNA

Erasing Breast Cancer: miRNAs and Epigenetic Factors Play Key Roles in Aggressive Breast Cancer Mechanisms

Cancer research is perhaps the poster child for the importance of integrating epigenetic analyses into a disease model. As research in the epigenetics of cancer continues to grow, relationships between myriad epigenetic regulators can become quite clear. In a recent study by Pier Paolo Pandolfi and colleagues, epigenetic players including …

Developmental Biology & Stem CellsRegulatory RNA

Soaking up the Competition – Circular RNAs as Molecular Sponges for miRNAs

Numerous families of non-coding RNAs have been identified in mammalian cells, including lncRNA, miRNA, siRNA, and piRNA.  Another type of RNA called circular RNA (circRNA) has remained a mysterious class, as the exact function of these molecules has not been described. Usually, circRNAs result from spicing events and have been …

Aging, Environment, & DiseaseRegulatory RNA

The Importance of Epigenetic Modification of RNA in miRNA Maturation and Breast Cancer

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded RNA molecules 18-24 bases in length that are important for the regulation of many biological processes by posttranscriptionally interfering with gene expression.   MiRNAs generally regulate gene expression by either facilitating mRNA degradation or repressing translation.  Generation of the mature and active form of miRNAs requires the …