Epigenetics, 5-hmC, and osteoarthritis
Aging, Environment, & DiseaseDNA Methylation and Hydroxymethylation

5-hmC Leading the Pain in Osteoarthritis

Over 27 million Americans are estimated to be living with osteoarthritis (OA), a debilitating joint disorder that results from continual loss of cartilage that cushions the bones. OA is accompanied by increased levels of the cytokines Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in cartilage cells called chondrocytes. These …

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Epigenetics and Allergies
Aging, Environment, & DiseaseDNA Methylation and Hydroxymethylation

New Year, New Hay Fever Season, and New Role for Epigenetics in Allergies

Itching of the eyes and nose, nasal congestion, sneezing, and runny nose are some symptoms of Allergic Rhinitis, better known as hay fever or seasonal allergies, which affects ~30% of people worldwide. In a recent PLOS Genetics publication, scientists from Sweden and the US investigated genome-wide DNA methylation and gene …

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DNA Methylation and Immune Cell Differentiation
Aging, Environment, & DiseaseDevelopmental Biology & Stem CellsDNA Methylation and Hydroxymethylation

DNA Methylation Regulates Differentiation of Naive Immune Cells into Effector Cells

During an adaptive immune response, naive CD8 T cells differentiate into antigen-specific effector cells that release cytotoxic proteins and rapidly proliferate to kill infected cells. When the pathogen has cleared, the majority of effector cells undergo apoptosis while a selected pool becomes memory cells. The differentiation process from naive to …

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