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DNA repair

DNA damage and repair permanently alters chromatin and DNA: Mechanisms of DNA methylation polymorphism

Antonio Pezone, PhD,  Dept Molecular Medicine Antonio Porcellini, MD, PhD, Dept Biology Enrico Vittorio Avvedimento, MD, Dept Molecular Medicine University “Federico II” Naples, Italy DNA methylation is a biological clock that ticks with age, and numerous studies have been able to construct age-prediction models based on methylation status. However in …

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When the writing is wrong: PRMT5 histone methylation promotes invasivity and metastasis in a range of human cancers

When the writing is wrong: PRMT5 histone arginine methylation promotes invasivity and metastasis in a range of human cancers

Cancer metastasis occurs when cancer cells leave a primary tumor and invade other tissues. Generally, this leads to a poor prognosis for patients. Underlying epigenetic mechanisms of tumor progression are poorly understood but are of great interest for developing new approaches of treatment in the clinic. Cancer etiology is highly …

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Epigenetic-metabolic axis in aging

Midlife crisis? Exploring the metabolic-epigenetic axis in “early” aging

Aging is characterized by a gradual and overall deterioration of our body’s function. The risk to suffer from maladies such as cancer, dementia, loss of muscles and others is greatly increased with the progression of aging. A substantial scientific effort and funding is channeled towards the understanding of molecular mechanisms …

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The “neighborhood effect” in chromatin biology: TET proteins-mediated DNA demethylation reconfigures the “histone code” at CpG islands

The “neighborhood effect” in chromatin biology: TET proteins-mediated DNA demethylation reconfigures the “histone code” at CpG islands

A nucleosome is constituted by positively charged histone proteins and negatively charged DNA. Methylation as well as other covalent modifications on DNA and histones ( together also called epigenetic modifications or marks) play important roles in the regulation of chromatin structure and function. TET (Ten-Eleven Translocation) proteins were identified as …

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sperm epigenetics

Don’t forget all that dad has done for you.. and your epigenome.. this father’s day!

In mammals, the recognition and fusion between the sperm from the father and the oocyte from the mother gives rise to offspring. Therefore, the production of functional, flagella-containing motile sperm is the prerequisite for successful fertilization in nature. In human females, there is typically only one oocyte ovulated during each …

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HUNTINGTON’S DISEASE

A Consistent Signature of Histone Deacetylation in Huntington’s Disease?

Huntington’s disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that affects 5 to 10 people per 100,000 inhabitants. Despite the identification of the primary cause of the disease 20 years ago (an aberrant expansion of trinucleotide CAG repeats in the exon 1 of the huntingtin gene), there is still no effective …

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Cancer heterogeneity

A Mechanism of Cancer Heterogeneity Originated from Epigenetics and Microevironments

Cancer is a deadly disease that we are still fighting despite nearly 50 years of worldwide scientific efforts. In order to have a better understanding of cancer, we need to explore the underlying mechanisms of the cancer cells themselves. It was once believed that the major cause of the cancer …

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EZH2: A New Biomarker and Epigenetic Target for Retinoblastoma

Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common primary eye cancer in children, the third most common cancer in infants younger than 1 year and accounts for 12% of all infantile cancers per year. RB can be blinding and lethal, and is caused by mutations in the tumor suppressor gene RB1. However, current …

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