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Epigenetic Regulators Are Important for Maintaining Bone Homeostasis

Balancing Bones: Epigenetic Regulators Are Important for Maintaining Bone Homeostasis

Walking the dog is not typically considered a dangerous task, but when an unexpected tug on the leash leads to a fall and a broken hip, it certainly becomes one. As we age, the balance between the formation of new bone and the removal of old bone shifts. New bone …

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Potential Treatment for Rett Syndrome Through Maintenance of X-inactivation

Maintenance of X-inactivation: A Step Towards a Potential Treatment for Rett Syndrome

Not only do the brown and black splotches of fur on calico cats make them pretty cute, they also reflect a moment early in mammalian development called X-chromosome inactivation. While females have two X-chromosomes, males only have one, so to ensure that the expression of genes on the X-chromosome is …

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Seafood toxins alter DNA methylation

Sex-specific Alterations in DNA Methylation from Prenatal Exposure to Seafood Toxins

Exposure to toxins in the womb can alter DNA methylation in the offspring [1], [2], persisting after birth [3]. Changes in DNA methylation in umbilical cord white blood cells (UCWBCs) have been linked to increased prevalence of disease, such as asthma [4]. To date, studies have dealt with a single …

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Hypomethylation in cancer and aging

Different DNA Hypomethylation Patterns in Cancer and Aging

The risk of developing cancer increases with age [1]. The mechanisms that increase the prevalence of cancer with age are not fully understood. Several studies have found the presence of polycomb-target gene promoter hypermethylation in aging and cancer [2], [3]. Perez et al researched whether aging and cancer share changes …

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Inflammation and Cognitive Decline

Age-related Dysregulation of Cytokine CXCL10 is Linked to Cognitive Decline

Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of aging pathology [1], [2]. Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for decreased cognitive performance [3], [4] and dementia [5] in older populations. Bradborn et al analyzed 35 cytokines in humans from the MyoAge study [6] to determine which are important for cognitive decline and …

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Sperm transfer aged epigenome to offspring

Advanced Paternal Age at Conception Increases Risk of Age-Related Diseases in Offspring

As a person ages, they become more prone to diseases, including cancer and neurodegeneration. Having children when you are older can also affect the health of your offspring, increasing the risk for neuropsychiatric disorders, among many others [1], [2]. Sperm contribute epigenetic information to the zygote [3] that can affect …

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DNA Methylation & Lifespan

DNA Methylation Rate May Determine Lifespan in Mammals

Species within the class Mammalia have a wide range of lifespans, from mice with a lifespan of 2 years to humans with a lifespan of over 100 years. Several non-molecular theories have been proposed to explain these lifespan variations, including body mass and metabolic rate [1]. Alternatively, research on ageing-associated …

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Aerobic Exercise Increases Function of the Hippocampus, HAT and HDAC Activity

Staying physically active is an effective method of delaying age-related cognitive decline [1]. Aerobic exercise increases expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus, maintaining cognitive function [2], [3]. This exercise induced BDNF expression is accompanied by increased acetylation of histone 3 [4]. It is unknown what molecular …

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