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Early Epigenetic Marks Lay Foundations for a Child’s Future Ability to Learn

The quality of early life environment has been shown to have a long lasting impact on human health1. In humans a poor intrauterine environment has been associated with an increased risk of non-communicable diseases in later life including cardiovascular and obstructive airways diseases, obesity and type 2 diabetes2. But there …

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Beyond Genetics: Epigenetics and the Autistic Brain

Autism spectrum disorder (autism for short) describes a heterogeneous set of conditions characterized by problems with social communication, social interaction and repetitive or restrictive behaviors. It effects approximately one in a hundred people and is four times more common in males than females, although it has been suggested that girls …

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Early-life Exposure to Substance Abuse and the Risk for Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic non-communicable disease that generally develops after the age of 40 and therefore believed to be associated with aging. There is, however,increasing experimental and epidemiological evidence that risk of T2D and obesity which is an important risk factor for T2D may be epigenetically programmed during critical windows …

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Figure 1: Factors involved in impaired male infertility due to reproductive aging.

Paternal Age and Epigenetics

Maternal aging has been shown to cause infertility, pregnancy complications, spontaneous abortion, congenital anomalies, and perinatal complications. However, the impact of paternal ageing on semen quality and reproductive function has still been controversial. To address this, Drs. Sharma, Professor Agarwal and their co-authors have extensively reviewed this conflict in an …

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DNA Methylation and Hydroxymethylation in Stem Cells

Ying Cheng, Nina Xie, Tao Wang Stem cells, including embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and adult stem cells (ASCs), are undifferentiated cells that can differentiate into specialized cells and self-renew through mitosis. These stem cell identities and functions are highly controlled by epigenetic regulation, including DNA methylation, histone modifications and nucleosome …

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Removing the breaks on DNA methylation increases “rough and tumble” play behavior: the role of Gadd45b, a demethylase, in social development

Autism, schizophrenia, and ADHD are characterized by the inappropriate manifestation of social behavior, with symptoms typically arising in childhood. Understanding what biological mechanisms put the brain at greater risk for social deficits is necessary to effectively develop better intervention strategies. It has become increasingly clear that adverse interactions between environmental …

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Epigenetics Matter: Ensuring Functional Stability of Regulatory T Cell Therapy Products

Many autoimmune diseases are characterized by an imbalance between the effector and regulatory arms of the immune system: auto-reactive effector T cells are hyper-activated, while their regulatory counterparts are impaired, or at least insufficient to keep harmful effector responses in check. Regulatory T cell (Treg) cell therapy is a promising …

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Transgenerational Epigenetic Inheritance: Why should you care?

Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance (TEI) is a relatively recent concept that has a major role in biological processes. Although we are just starting to understand the role of TEI in human health, the implications seem enormous. Our recent article in Clinical Epigenetics summarizes evidence in animal models showing transgenerational phenotypes that …

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