Acetylation in Alzheimer's disease
Aging, Environment, & DiseaseChromatin StructureHistone Modifications

Dysregulation of Histone Acetylation in Alzheimer’s Disease

In Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology, neuronal histone acetylation is reduced at memory-related genes [1]. Nativio et al specifically researched H4K16ac, a regulator of chromatin compaction, because it plays an important role in cellular aging and senescence [2]. By comparing the genome-wide profiles of H4K16ac in brain tissues from AD patients …

Seafood toxins alter DNA methylation
Aging, Environment, & DiseaseDNA Methylation and Hydroxymethylation

Sex-specific Alterations in DNA Methylation from Prenatal Exposure to Seafood Toxins

Exposure to toxins in the womb can alter DNA methylation in the offspring [1], [2], persisting after birth [3]. Changes in DNA methylation in umbilical cord white blood cells (UCWBCs) have been linked to increased prevalence of disease, such as asthma [4]. To date, studies have dealt with a single …

Predicting Double-Strand Breaks
Tools & Technology

Accurately Predicting Double-Strand Breaks Using Public Genetic Databases

Double-strand breaks (DSBs) cause chromosomal rearrangements, such as deletions, translocations, and fusions of DNA [1]. This results in a host of issues with cellular function, making it important to map where DSBs can occur in the genome. Mourad et al used public data on the epigenome, chromatin structure, DNA motifs, …

Hypomethylation in cancer and aging
Aging, Environment, & DiseaseDNA Methylation and Hydroxymethylation

Different DNA Hypomethylation Patterns in Cancer and Aging

The risk of developing cancer increases with age [1]. The mechanisms that increase the prevalence of cancer with age are not fully understood. Several studies have found the presence of polycomb-target gene promoter hypermethylation in aging and cancer [2], [3]. Perez et al researched whether aging and cancer share changes …

Inflammation and Cognitive Decline
Aging, Environment, & DiseaseDNA Methylation and Hydroxymethylation

Age-related Dysregulation of Cytokine CXCL10 is Linked to Cognitive Decline

Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of aging pathology [1], [2]. Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for decreased cognitive performance [3], [4] and dementia [5] in older populations. Bradborn et al analyzed 35 cytokines in humans from the MyoAge study [6] to determine which are important for cognitive decline and …

Sperm transfer aged epigenome to offspring
Aging, Environment, & DiseaseDNA Methylation and HydroxymethylationImprinting and Inheritance

Advanced Paternal Age at Conception Increases Risk of Age-Related Diseases in Offspring

As a person ages, they become more prone to diseases, including cancer and neurodegeneration. Having children when you are older can also affect the health of your offspring, increasing the risk for neuropsychiatric disorders, among many others [1], [2]. Sperm contribute epigenetic information to the zygote [3] that can affect …

DNA Methylation & Lifespan
Aging, Environment, & DiseaseArticle SummariesDNA Methylation and Hydroxymethylation

DNA Methylation Rate May Determine Lifespan in Mammals

Species within the class Mammalia have a wide range of lifespans, from mice with a lifespan of 2 years to humans with a lifespan of over 100 years. Several non-molecular theories have been proposed to explain these lifespan variations, including body mass and metabolic rate [1]. Alternatively, research on ageing-associated …

Aging, Environment, & DiseaseDNA Methylation and HydroxymethylationHistone Modifications

Aerobic Exercise Increases Function of the Hippocampus, HAT and HDAC Activity

Staying physically active is an effective method of delaying age-related cognitive decline [1]. Aerobic exercise increases expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus, maintaining cognitive function [2], [3]. This exercise induced BDNF expression is accompanied by increased acetylation of histone 3 [4]. It is unknown what molecular …