CHL1 hypermethylation
Aging, Environment, & DiseaseDNA Methylation and Hydroxymethylation

CHL1 Hypermethylation in Breast Cancer

Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer among women and one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide (1-3). It is a clinically heterogeneous disease, with at least 5 different subtypes (4) and quite variable prognosis, even within a subtype. In spite of early detection programmes, unfortunately 20-30% …

Fibrosis radiation therapy epigenetics
Aging, Environment, & DiseaseDNA Methylation and Hydroxymethylation

Epigenetic Predisposition to Radiation Fibrosis

Radiotherapy is a highly efficient treatment for many cancers including breast cancer. Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT), a relatively new type of radiation therapy, has proven successful as a curative treatment for early cancer stages. However, in spite of great improvements in dose delivery and imaging technology, unwanted exposure of healthy tissue …

Transient Imprinting of Genes in the Human Placenta
Developmental Biology & Stem CellsDNA Methylation and Hydroxymethylation

Transient Imprinting of Genes in the Human Placenta

When the fertilization occurs, the maternal and paternal pronuclei have thousands of opposite methylated regions. Most of this germline methylation are resolved during the postfertilization epigenetic reprogramming by active mechanism for the sperm-derived methylated regions and depending on DNA replication for the oocyte-derived ones. There is a subset of regions …

Epigenetic Diagnostics
DNA Methylation and HydroxymethylationTools & Technology

Epigenetic Diagnostics: Locus-specific DNA Methylation Testing Poised for Clinical Impact

Precision medicine holds great potential to make a direct positive impact in the clinic. A growing number of diagnostic panels addressing a list of disease indications are now available for testing. Currently most tests are designed for genetic analysis of sample DNA to help inform treatment decisions. With a few …

ncRNA is Synergistically Regulated by Various Epi-Modifications
Aging, Environment, & DiseaseDNA Methylation and HydroxymethylationHistone ModificationsRegulatory RNATools & Technology

Non-coding RNA Expression is Synergistically modulated by Various Types of Epigenetic Modifications

It is well known that most of the mammalian genome is transcribed, producing large amounts of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). The two main types of ncRNA are micro RNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). MiRNAs are a recently discovered and well-characterized class of ncRNAs that are frequently dysregulated in different …

DNA methylation in the placenta
Developmental Biology & Stem CellsDNA Methylation and HydroxymethylationUncategorized

DNA Methylation in the Placenta: accelerated aging in pregnancy complications

The placenta is a unique organ as it is an extra-embryonic tissue primarily regulated by the fetal genome and shared between mother and fetus. However, it is a transient organ that is only needed throughout pregnancy and gestation and then is discarded after delivery. The essential role of the placenta …

Neuroblastoma cells: nuclei are stained in red, microfilaments are in green and in blue
Aging, Environment, & DiseaseDNA Methylation and HydroxymethylationRegulatory RNA

MicroRNA expression is regulated by DNA methylation: a complex cascade of gene regulation events

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs, roughly 22 nucleotides in size that are central and negative regulators of gene expression. They exert their functions through base-pairing with the 3’UTR of mRNAs   and block expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, depending on the perfect or imperfect match in sequences between miRNAs …

DNA repair
Aging, Environment, & DiseaseDNA Methylation and HydroxymethylationHistone Modifications

DNA damage and repair permanently alters chromatin and DNA: Mechanisms of DNA methylation polymorphism

Antonio Pezone, PhD,  Dept Molecular Medicine Antonio Porcellini, MD, PhD, Dept Biology Enrico Vittorio Avvedimento, MD, Dept Molecular Medicine University “Federico II” Naples, Italy DNA methylation is a biological clock that ticks with age, and numerous studies have been able to construct age-prediction models based on methylation status. However in …