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Can Epigenetics Fix a Broken Heart? Epigenetic Modifications Enhance the Cardiac Competency of Adult Stem Cells

Can Epigenetics Fix a Broken Heart? Epigenetic Modifications Enhance the Cardiac Competency of Adult Stem Cells

          In Mathias Malzieu’s novel “The Boy with the Cuckoo-Clock Heart”, Jack is born with a frozen, dysfunctional heart which, fortunately for him, is soon replaced with a workable heart made from a cuckoo clock. If found in a similar situation, who would not desire such an amazing, albeit strange, miracle? …

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epigenetic mechanisms in allergic diseases

Asthma & Histone Acetylation: an important epigenetic mechanism in allergic diseases

Epigenetic regulation is thought to be one of the most important mechanisms contributing to the development and clinical course of chronic immunological diseases like allergies and asthma. DNA methylation has been extensively studied in this context, which has not been a case of histone modifications such as histone acetylation or …

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ncRNA is Synergistically Regulated by Various Epi-Modifications

Non-coding RNA Expression is Synergistically modulated by Various Types of Epigenetic Modifications

It is well known that most of the mammalian genome is transcribed, producing large amounts of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). The two main types of ncRNA are micro RNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). MiRNAs are a recently discovered and well-characterized class of ncRNAs that are frequently dysregulated in different …

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Activated protein C ameliorates diabetic nephropathy by epigenetically inhibiting the redox enzyme p66Shc

Activated protein C ameliorates diabetic nephropathy (kidney disease) by epigenetically inhibiting the enzyme p66Shc

Activated protein C (aPC) is a serine protease that is lost during diabetes. Previously it has been shown that aPC protects against diabetic nephropathy (dNP)1, a progressive kidney disease caused by damage to the capillaries.  aPC’s cytoprotective effect in diabetic nephropathy may be related to its in vitro ability to …

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DNA repair

DNA damage and repair permanently alters chromatin and DNA: Mechanisms of DNA methylation polymorphism

Antonio Pezone, PhD,  Dept Molecular Medicine Antonio Porcellini, MD, PhD, Dept Biology Enrico Vittorio Avvedimento, MD, Dept Molecular Medicine University “Federico II” Naples, Italy DNA methylation is a biological clock that ticks with age, and numerous studies have been able to construct age-prediction models based on methylation status. However in …

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When the writing is wrong: PRMT5 histone methylation promotes invasivity and metastasis in a range of human cancers

When the writing is wrong: PRMT5 histone arginine methylation promotes invasivity and metastasis in a range of human cancers

Cancer metastasis occurs when cancer cells leave a primary tumor and invade other tissues. Generally, this leads to a poor prognosis for patients. Underlying epigenetic mechanisms of tumor progression are poorly understood but are of great interest for developing new approaches of treatment in the clinic. Cancer etiology is highly …

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Epigenetic-metabolic axis in aging

Midlife crisis? Exploring the metabolic-epigenetic axis in “early” aging

Aging is characterized by a gradual and overall deterioration of our body’s function. The risk to suffer from maladies such as cancer, dementia, loss of muscles and others is greatly increased with the progression of aging. A substantial scientific effort and funding is channeled towards the understanding of molecular mechanisms …

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The “neighborhood effect” in chromatin biology: TET proteins-mediated DNA demethylation reconfigures the “histone code” at CpG islands

The “neighborhood effect” in chromatin biology: TET proteins-mediated DNA demethylation reconfigures the “histone code” at CpG islands

A nucleosome is constituted by positively charged histone proteins and negatively charged DNA. Methylation as well as other covalent modifications on DNA and histones ( together also called epigenetic modifications or marks) play important roles in the regulation of chromatin structure and function. TET (Ten-Eleven Translocation) proteins were identified as …

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