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5-Formlycytosine (5fC): A new base?

5-Formlycytosine (5fC): A new base?

DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation are well-established key players in gene regulation. Although many would agree that 5hmC also plays a critical role, there is still some debate over whether it serves a functional role, or is merely an artifact of DNA de-methylation. Even still, other intermediates of de-methylation are actively …

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Hypomethylation and Genetic Instability in Monosomy Blastocysts May Contribute to Decreased Implantation Potential

Epigenetics of Early Pregnancy Loss: Hypomethylation and Genetic Instability May Contribute to Decreased Implantation Potential of Monosomy Blastocysts

Blair R. McCallie1,3, Jason C. Parks1,3, Alyssa L. Patton1, Darren K. Griffin3, William B. Schoolcraft2, Mandy G. Katz-Jaffe1,2 1 National Foundation for Fertility Research, Lone Tree, Colorado, 80124, United States of America, 2 Colorado Center for Reproductive Medicine, Lone Tree, Colorado, 80124, United States of America, 3 School of Biosciences, …

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DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in the aging brain

DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in the aging brain – Not less, but where

Changes in DNA methylation have long been an area of interest for neurobiology of aging researchers.  With the recent reports of ‘aging’ DNA methylation clocks1,2 and the discovery of roles for methylation3 and hydroxymethylation4 in memory formation5 there is a heightened interest in examining changes in DNA modifications with aging …

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HPV Human Papillomavirus Leads to Dysregulation of Immune Responses Through Epigenetic Mechanisms

HPV Human Papillomavirus Leads to Dysregulation of Immune Responses Through Epigenetic Mechanisms

Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are a diverse group of small double-stranded DNA viruses with specific mucosal or cutaneous tropisms. It is estimated that up to 80% of sexually active individuals will become infected with HPV sometime in their lifetime, making HPV the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection. HPVs can be further …

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The “neighborhood effect” in chromatin biology: TET proteins-mediated DNA demethylation reconfigures the “histone code” at CpG islands

The “neighborhood effect” in chromatin biology: TET proteins-mediated DNA demethylation reconfigures the “histone code” at CpG islands

A nucleosome is constituted by positively charged histone proteins and negatively charged DNA. Methylation as well as other covalent modifications on DNA and histones ( together also called epigenetic modifications or marks) play important roles in the regulation of chromatin structure and function. TET (Ten-Eleven Translocation) proteins were identified as …

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Sex Differences in the zebrafish brain.

Plenty of Fish in the Sea but Only Two Kinds of Brains: Epigenetic Sex differences in Zebrafish Brain

Phenotypic differences between males and females of a species are referred to as sexual dimorphism. Sexual dimorphism manifests not only in morphological traits, but also in physiological and behavioural traits. In organisms that do not have sex chromosomes, males and females are both derived from a nearly identical genome. Such …

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Gene Imprinting

Genomic imprinting – new insight into the methylation patterns of humans

Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic gene-marking phenomenon that is mostly established in germline and results in monoallelic gene expression according to parental origin.1 The process of genomic imprinting is associated with prenatal development providing functions necessary for normal fetal growth. In addition to prenatal expression, postnatal gene imprinting may also …

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Epigenetics link inflammation to type 1 diabetes

Methylation of the insulin gene in response to inflammation in autoimmune Type 1 Diabetes

Joyce Jinxiu Rui and Kevan C. Herold Department of Immunobiology, Department Internal Medicine, Yale University, 300 George St, New Haven, CT 06520, USA Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a type of autoimmune disease caused by immunologic destruction of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Although the exact cause is unknown, …

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