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hypertriacylglycerolaemia

Hypertriacylglycerolaemia: Genetic and epigenetic factors jointly regulate circulating triacylglycerol levels

Apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) is one of the genes implicated in contributing to a  predisposition for hypertriacylglycerolaemia (HTG),  a complex polygenic pathology that is highly influenced by environment. Hypertriacylglycerolaemia is characterized by having high circulating triacylglycerol levels and is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. This genetic …

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DNA repair

DNA damage and repair permanently alters chromatin and DNA: Mechanisms of DNA methylation polymorphism

Antonio Pezone, PhD,  Dept Molecular Medicine Antonio Porcellini, MD, PhD, Dept Biology Enrico Vittorio Avvedimento, MD, Dept Molecular Medicine University “Federico II” Naples, Italy DNA methylation is a biological clock that ticks with age, and numerous studies have been able to construct age-prediction models based on methylation status. However in …

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Estrogen, Memory, & Aging

Estrogen, Memory, & Aging: DNA methylation of the ERα promoter contributes to transcriptional differences in age across the hippocampus

Lara Ianov1,2, Ashok Kumar1, Thomas C. Foster1,2  1Department of Neuroscience, McKnight Brain Institute, 2Genetics and Genomics Program, Genetics Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 Estradiol (E2) influences a number of processes that are important for maintaining healthy brain function, including memory. The ability of E2 to protect the brain …

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5-Formlycytosine (5fC): A new base?

5-Formlycytosine (5fC): A new base?

DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation are well-established key players in gene regulation. Although many would agree that 5hmC also plays a critical role, there is still some debate over whether it serves a functional role, or is merely an artifact of DNA de-methylation. Even still, other intermediates of de-methylation are actively …

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Hypomethylation and Genetic Instability in Monosomy Blastocysts May Contribute to Decreased Implantation Potential

Epigenetics of Early Pregnancy Loss: Hypomethylation and Genetic Instability May Contribute to Decreased Implantation Potential of Monosomy Blastocysts

Blair R. McCallie1,3, Jason C. Parks1,3, Alyssa L. Patton1, Darren K. Griffin3, William B. Schoolcraft2, Mandy G. Katz-Jaffe1,2 1 National Foundation for Fertility Research, Lone Tree, Colorado, 80124, United States of America, 2 Colorado Center for Reproductive Medicine, Lone Tree, Colorado, 80124, United States of America, 3 School of Biosciences, …

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DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in the aging brain

DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in the aging brain – Not less, but where

Changes in DNA methylation have long been an area of interest for neurobiology of aging researchers.  With the recent reports of ‘aging’ DNA methylation clocks1,2 and the discovery of roles for methylation3 and hydroxymethylation4 in memory formation5 there is a heightened interest in examining changes in DNA modifications with aging …

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HPV Human Papillomavirus Leads to Dysregulation of Immune Responses Through Epigenetic Mechanisms

HPV Human Papillomavirus Leads to Dysregulation of Immune Responses Through Epigenetic Mechanisms

Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are a diverse group of small double-stranded DNA viruses with specific mucosal or cutaneous tropisms. It is estimated that up to 80% of sexually active individuals will become infected with HPV sometime in their lifetime, making HPV the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection. HPVs can be further …

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The “neighborhood effect” in chromatin biology: TET proteins-mediated DNA demethylation reconfigures the “histone code” at CpG islands

The “neighborhood effect” in chromatin biology: TET proteins-mediated DNA demethylation reconfigures the “histone code” at CpG islands

A nucleosome is constituted by positively charged histone proteins and negatively charged DNA. Methylation as well as other covalent modifications on DNA and histones ( together also called epigenetic modifications or marks) play important roles in the regulation of chromatin structure and function. TET (Ten-Eleven Translocation) proteins were identified as …

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