Transient Imprinting of Genes in the Human Placenta

Transient Imprinting of Genes in the Human Placenta

When the fertilization occurs, the maternal and paternal pronuclei have thousands of opposite methylated regions. Most of this germline methylation are resolved during the postfertilization epigenetic reprogramming by active mechanism for the sperm-derived methylated regions and depending on DNA replication for the oocyte-derived ones. There is a subset of regions …

READ MORE →
DNA methylation in the placenta

DNA Methylation in the Placenta: accelerated aging in pregnancy complications

The placenta is a unique organ as it is an extra-embryonic tissue primarily regulated by the fetal genome and shared between mother and fetus. However, it is a transient organ that is only needed throughout pregnancy and gestation and then is discarded after delivery. The essential role of the placenta …

READ MORE →
5-Formlycytosine (5fC): A new base?

5-Formlycytosine (5fC): A new base?

DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation are well-established key players in gene regulation. Although many would agree that 5hmC also plays a critical role, there is still some debate over whether it serves a functional role, or is merely an artifact of DNA de-methylation. Even still, other intermediates of de-methylation are actively …

READ MORE →
Hypomethylation and Genetic Instability in Monosomy Blastocysts May Contribute to Decreased Implantation Potential

Epigenetics of Early Pregnancy Loss: Hypomethylation and Genetic Instability May Contribute to Decreased Implantation Potential of Monosomy Blastocysts

Blair R. McCallie1,3, Jason C. Parks1,3, Alyssa L. Patton1, Darren K. Griffin3, William B. Schoolcraft2, Mandy G. Katz-Jaffe1,2 1 National Foundation for Fertility Research, Lone Tree, Colorado, 80124, United States of America, 2 Colorado Center for Reproductive Medicine, Lone Tree, Colorado, 80124, United States of America, 3 School of Biosciences, …

READ MORE →
Sex Differences in the zebrafish brain.

Plenty of Fish in the Sea but Only Two Kinds of Brains: Epigenetic Sex differences in Zebrafish Brain

Phenotypic differences between males and females of a species are referred to as sexual dimorphism. Sexual dimorphism manifests not only in morphological traits, but also in physiological and behavioural traits. In organisms that do not have sex chromosomes, males and females are both derived from a nearly identical genome. Such …

READ MORE →
sperm epigenetics

Don’t forget all that dad has done for you.. and your epigenome.. this father’s day!

In mammals, the recognition and fusion between the sperm from the father and the oocyte from the mother gives rise to offspring. Therefore, the production of functional, flagella-containing motile sperm is the prerequisite for successful fertilization in nature. In human females, there is typically only one oocyte ovulated during each …

READ MORE →
shutterstock_104447363

Battle of the Sexes: Autosomal DNA methylation tells us that men and women are more different than we thought

The genetic factors that give rise to the obvious morphological differences between males and females have long been known. Recently however, some less obvious disparities have emerged at the molecular level in the form of sex specific metabolic profiles, where any attempts to attribute these differences to genomic variations in …

READ MORE →
shutterstock_49830313

Using Saliva to Measure the Brain: Translating A Salivary Diagnostic for Fetal Alcohol Exposure

The consumption of any amount of alcohol during pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASD is an umbrella term covering a wide range of exposures from prenatal alcohol exposure, with the most severe outcome termed Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). However, the spectrum is wide and with no lower …

READ MORE →