Alzheimer’s & the Brain Stem

Epigenetic Dysregulation Within the Brainstem in Alzheimer’s Disease

The elusive nature of the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) impedes scientific breakthroughs in diagnostics or efficient therapeutics for this devastating disorder. To date, the long-prevailing theories of genetic contribution do not adequately explain the pathogenesis of the disease and, alternatively, epigenetic regulation has been proposed as a key …

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epigenetic mechanisms in allergic diseases

Asthma & Histone Acetylation: an important epigenetic mechanism in allergic diseases

Epigenetic regulation is thought to be one of the most important mechanisms contributing to the development and clinical course of chronic immunological diseases like allergies and asthma. DNA methylation has been extensively studied in this context, which has not been a case of histone modifications such as histone acetylation or …

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ncRNA is Synergistically Regulated by Various Epi-Modifications

Non-coding RNA Expression is Synergistically modulated by Various Types of Epigenetic Modifications

It is well known that most of the mammalian genome is transcribed, producing large amounts of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). The two main types of ncRNA are micro RNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). MiRNAs are a recently discovered and well-characterized class of ncRNAs that are frequently dysregulated in different …

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Activated protein C ameliorates diabetic nephropathy by epigenetically inhibiting the redox enzyme p66Shc

Activated protein C ameliorates diabetic nephropathy (kidney disease) by epigenetically inhibiting the enzyme p66Shc

Activated protein C (aPC) is a serine protease that is lost during diabetes. Previously it has been shown that aPC protects against diabetic nephropathy (dNP)1, a progressive kidney disease caused by damage to the capillaries.  aPC’s cytoprotective effect in diabetic nephropathy may be related to its in vitro ability to …

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Neuroblastoma cells: nuclei are stained in red, microfilaments are in green and in blue

MicroRNA expression is regulated by DNA methylation: a complex cascade of gene regulation events

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs, roughly 22 nucleotides in size that are central and negative regulators of gene expression. They exert their functions through base-pairing with the 3’UTR of mRNAs   and block expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, depending on the perfect or imperfect match in sequences between miRNAs …

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Patient-derived tumor xenograft models (PDXs) for ovarian cancer

A Better Model System for Ovarian Cancer: Patient-derived tumor xenografts (PDXs) are suitable for epigenetic methylome-based cancer research

Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. After epigenomic analysis of patient tumors, aberrant DNA methylation patterns are universally observed in the most abundant histological subtype of ovarian cancer, high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). These epigenetic modifications like DNA methylation are known to frequently affect gene regulation involved in …

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hypertriacylglycerolaemia

Hypertriacylglycerolaemia: Genetic and epigenetic factors jointly regulate circulating triacylglycerol levels

Apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) is one of the genes implicated in contributing to a  predisposition for hypertriacylglycerolaemia (HTG),  a complex polygenic pathology that is highly influenced by environment. Hypertriacylglycerolaemia is characterized by having high circulating triacylglycerol levels and is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. This genetic …

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DNA repair

DNA damage and repair permanently alters chromatin and DNA: Mechanisms of DNA methylation polymorphism

Antonio Pezone, PhD,  Dept Molecular Medicine Antonio Porcellini, MD, PhD, Dept Biology Enrico Vittorio Avvedimento, MD, Dept Molecular Medicine University “Federico II” Naples, Italy DNA methylation is a biological clock that ticks with age, and numerous studies have been able to construct age-prediction models based on methylation status. However in …

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